It is defined as an infectious and inflammatory disease which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, parasite which is present in the feces of reduviid bug. Reduviid bug commonly present in Mexico, Central America, and South America therefore it is also called American trypanosomiasis.
Signs and symptoms divided into acute and chronic phase and range from mild to severe.
Acute phase sign include:
Chornic phase sign include:
- Cardiac arrest
- Congestive heart failure
- Increase heart beat
- Swelling in esophagus due to which swallowing difficulty occurs
- Abdominal cramps
Trypanosoma cruzi is the cause of Chagas diseases, which is present in the feces of reduviid bug and transmitted by biting of this insect.
Other causes of infection:
- Blood transfusion with contaminated blood
- Insect feces present in uncooked food
- Traveling to forest where insects are endemic
- Accidental exposure during working in labs
If it is not treated in the acute phase then it causes complications associated with heart problems. Which are mention below:
- Your colon will be enlarged and causing abdominal dilation and pain and constipation.
- Your heart becomes too hard and stiff that it is unable to perform pumping function.
- Due to the heart problem tissue and organs deprive of oxygen and ischemic injury occurs.
- Enlargement of esophagus cause swallowing difficulties.
Your doctor will take your history about eating and travelling and after doing physical examination he/she may recommend following tests:
- Abdominal ultrasound to check the condition of colon and stomach
- Chest x-ray to check the enlargement of heart
- Endoscopy to check the swallowing of esophagus
First-line management is to control the signs and symptoms and to prevent the complications. Medications like benznidazole and nifurtimox will be used. Further treatment will be depend on the signs and symptoms.