It is defined as the condition in which brain substance is extend into the spinal cord. It is occurred due to the small skull or misshapen skull which pressed the brain and move it downward.
If extension is more than signs and symptoms may produce which include:
- Neck pain
- Gait problem
- Difficulty in swallowing
- Speech problem
- Slow heart rate
Chiari malformation type 1 is occurred due to the small part of skull which hold the cerebellum, due to which cerebellum compress the other parts of brain.
Chiari malformation 2 is associated with spina bifida called myelomeningocele.
It can lead to the following complications:
- Spina bifida
- Tethered cord syndrome in which spinal cord is stretch due to attachment with spines.
Diagnosis can be made by:
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to take the detailed image of brain.
- Cerebral angiography to check the condition of your blood vessels in the brain.
- Blood test to check the complete blood count
- Lumber puncture to check the CSF pressure.
- Cranial ultrasound
Treatment option depend upon the severity of the symptoms and overall health of the patient. Treatment include:
- Reduce the pressure of csf by medicine.
- Reduce compression of brain substances by posterior fossa decompression by removing a small portion of bone to provide a more space to brain.
- Place shunt to drain the excessive fluid accumulated in brain.