In the condition namely childhood asthma, inflammation of airway and lungs occur easily from the surrounding triggers in the environment like pollens, cold air or some respiratory viruses.
Symptoms of this disease include:
- Frequently coughing of child
- Tightness of chest
- Wheezing or whistling on exhalation
- Breathing difficulty
- Troubled sleeping pattern
- Bouts of coughing which worsen when child is suffering from cold
- Recovery become delayed after infection of respiratory tract
- Poor sleeping pattern causes fatigue
Some of the major causes involved in the development of childhood asthma are:
- Genetical tendency to develop allergy
- Hereditary factor involves if parents have asthma
- Infection of upper airway at very young age
- Through environmental factors like air pollution
- Trigger for allergic reaction due to overactive immune system results are viral infections, airpollutants like tobacco smoke, physical activity, seasonal allergies.
Some concerning complications are as follows:
- Asthma attack
- Lung functions permanently declined
- Poor sleep and permanent fatigue
- Daily routine become distorted
Diagnosis of this condition requires complete general physical examination of patient and detailed medical history. Other conditions can mimic childhood asthma such as rhinitis, GERD, sinusitis, abnormalities of airway, upper respiratory tract infection. Other investigations include:
- Spirometry which is a lung function tests.
- Exhaled nitric oxide test
- Allergy skin test for asthma triggers
Treatment options include:
- Medications are prescribed like inhaled corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers [ montelukast (Singulair), zafirlukast (Accolate) and zileuton (Zyflo)], combination inhalers, theophylline, immunomodulatory agents, quick acting beta agonists.
- Asthma action plan are also deviced as a part of treatment.
- Use dehumidifier at home to reduce the humidity
- Indoor area cleaning should be done
- Reduce the exposure to pet danders
- Reduce the exposure of cold air of child.