A colon polyp is manifested as a small lump on the lining of gastrointestinal tract mainly colon. Although colon polyp is not harmful but it can be progressed to colon cancer which can be fatal. Colon polyp can be neoplastic or non-neoplastic. Non-neoplastic polyp include hyperplastic polyp, inflammatory polyps and hamartomatous polyps.
Symptoms of this condition includes
- Rectal bleeding
- Red streaks in stool or black stools
- Constipation or diarrhea
- Abdominal pain and cramps
- Iron deficiency anemia
Main cause of colon polyp is the mutation in the healthy cells that results in disorderly cell division and formation of polyp. There are different types of colon polyps including non-neoplastic and neoplastic. Non-neoplastic infrequently proceed to cancerous stage. Neoplastic polyp include adenomas and serrated types. Inflammatory polyp is seen with other diseases like ulcerative colitis or crohn’s disease and these can increase the risk of colon cancer.
Hereditary polyp can occur in some syndromes like Lynch syndrome, Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), Gardner’s syndrome, MYH-associated polyposis (MAP), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Serrated polyposis syndrome.
Diagnosis of this condition depends upon detailed medical history and complete general physical examination of patient. Other screening methods include:
- Virtual colonoscopy (CT colonography)
- Flexible sigmoidoscopy
- Stool-based tests
Treatment options include:
- Polypectomy is the surgical removal of polyp
- Minimally invasive surgery through laparoscope
- Total proctocolectomy in which there is removal of colon and rectum