Coma is a long lasting stage of unconsciousness that leads to many problems including traumatic head injury, stroke, brain tumor, drug or alcohol intoxication and some medical conditions like diabetes or infection.
Coma is regarded as a medical emergency. Immediate treatment is necessary to maintain life and brain functions.
Patients of coma presents as :
- Closed eyes
- Depressed brain reflexes such as pupil not responding to light
- No reflex movements
- No response to painful stimuli
- Irregular breathing
- Pressure sores
- Bladder infections
- Blood clots in legs
Diagnosis of this condition depends upon detailed medical history from relatives and family as well as complete general physical examination of patient.
Other tests include:
- Blood test
- Carbon monoxide poisoning test
- Liver function test
- Drug abuse test
- Lumber puncture for signs of infections
- CT scan of brain
Treatment options include:
- Maintain breathing problems
- Blood transfusion
- Supportive care
- Administration of glucose or antibiotics intravenously
- Procedure that relieve pressure from brain or medications.