This syndrome is a complication of congenital heart defect. The most common cause of eisenmenger syndrome is the presence of heart defect characterized by hole between two chambers of heart.
This syndrome presents as:
- Cyanosis i-e bluish or grayish skin color
- Clubbing of fingernails and toenails
- Shortness of breath with little activity
- Pain in the chest
- Chest tightness
- Abdominal swelling
- Tingling sensations in the fingers and toes
The main cause of Eisenmenger syndrome is the presence of hole between the chambers of heart which is a birth defect. As the result of this blood flows backward through the shunt, causing oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to mix. This will ultimately lead to low oxygen level in the body. Following are the heart defects that causes Eisenmenger syndrome:
- Erythrocytosis characterized by High red blood cell count
- Pulmonary embolism
- Sudden cardiac arrest
- Heart failure
- Kidney problems
Diagnosis of this condition depends upon detailed medical history and complete general physical examination of the patient. Other tests include the following:
- Electrocardiogram (ECG)
- Imaging tests like chest X-ray, ultrasound, MRI
- Cardiac catheterization
Treatment options include:
- Observation and monitoring of the patient
- Medications are generally prescribed which include iron supplements, aspirin, anti-arrhythmic medications, vasodilators, antibiotics.
- Phlebotomy means blood drawing is done to reduce the symptoms which arises due to increase blood count.
- Heart-lung transplantation is also rarely considered.