Encephalitis is a condition which is characterized by inflammation of the brain. Mostly it result from a viral infection. This condition can be life-threatening and needed timely treatment.


Symptoms include:Encephalitis Causes Symptoms Treatment

  • Severe headache
  • Moderate fever
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Confusion and altered state of mind
  • Hallucinations
  • Speech and hearing problems
  • Muscle weakness
  • Bulging of fontanels in infant skull
  • Body stiffness
  • Irritability

Main cause of this condition is not known. However, it can result from viral or bacterial infection and non infectious inflammatory conditions. There are two types of encephalitis; primary encephalitis and secondary encephalitis. Main viruses that causes encephalitis are Herpes simplex virus (HSV), enteroviruses, mosquito-borne viruses, rabies virus.


Diagnosis of this condition depends upon detailed medical history and complete general physical examination of the patient. Other tests which are necessary for the diagnosis are:

  • Imaging tests of brain including CT scan, MRI
  • Lumber puncture or spinal tap
  • Urine test
  • Blood tests
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Biopsy of brain

Treatment options include:

  • Mainly bed rest
  • Intake of excess fluid
  • Medications include anti-inflammatory drugs, antiviral drugs are prescribed.
  • Supportive palliative care
  • Some follow-up therapies are also prescribed like physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, psychotherapy
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