Encephalitis is a condition which is characterized by inflammation of the brain. Mostly it result from a viral infection. This condition can be life-threatening and needed timely treatment.
- Severe headache
- Moderate fever
- Muscle and joint pain
- Confusion and altered state of mind
- Speech and hearing problems
- Muscle weakness
- Bulging of fontanels in infant skull
- Body stiffness
Main cause of this condition is not known. However, it can result from viral or bacterial infection and non infectious inflammatory conditions. There are two types of encephalitis; primary encephalitis and secondary encephalitis. Main viruses that causes encephalitis are Herpes simplex virus (HSV), enteroviruses, mosquito-borne viruses, rabies virus.
Diagnosis of this condition depends upon detailed medical history and complete general physical examination of the patient. Other tests which are necessary for the diagnosis are:
- Imaging tests of brain including CT scan, MRI
- Lumber puncture or spinal tap
- Urine test
- Blood tests
- Electroencephalogram (EEG)
- Biopsy of brain
Treatment options include:
- Mainly bed rest
- Intake of excess fluid
- Medications include anti-inflammatory drugs, antiviral drugs are prescribed.
- Supportive palliative care
- Some follow-up therapies are also prescribed like physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, psychotherapy