Long QT Syndrome
Long QT Syndrome
This is an arrhythmical condition of the heart that is chcharacterized by fast and chaotic heart beats. This may lead to sudden fainting. Some patients presents with seizures. It can be fatal in severe cases.
This condition is usually asymptomatic but some can have clue of long QT syndrome due to
- Unintentionally on ECG done due to other causes
- Family history of this syndrome
- Results of genetic testing
- Fainting usually is more common. Also known as syncope
This is a disorder of heart rhythms occur due to abnormalities in the electrical activity of the heart but the heart anatomy is normal. Usually in this syndrome heart rhythms take longer than normal to recharge between the rhythms. This delay in recharge leads to prolong QT segment on ECG. Depending on the cause there are two main categories of QT syndrome i-e congenital long QT syndrome and acquired long QT syndrome.
- Life-threatening form of ventricular arrhythmia known as Torsades de pointes (‘twisting of the points’).
- Ventricular fibrillation
- Sudden death
- Unexplained fainting, drowsiness.
Diagnosis of this condition depends upon detailed medical history and complete general physical examination of the patient. Other tests include:
- Remote ECG monitoring including Holter monitor, Event monitor.
- Genetic testing
Mainly the treatment options include lifestyle modification. Other options include:
- Medications are prescribed like beta blockers and Mexiletine
- Surgery is sometimes done to cure it. Surgeries include left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD) surgery, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)