This syndrome is a congenital and inherited disease characterized by increase risk of colon cancer, endometrial cancer and other several types of cancer. Previously lynch syndrome was known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).
- Early onset of colon cancer especially before 50
- A family history of endometrial cancer
- Family history of other related types of cancer like ovarian cancers, sweat gland cancers etc
This is an autosomal dominant condition means there’s 50% chances of each child to get the mutation if one parent has genetic mutation for lynch syndrome. Either the mutation is in mother or father, risk is same. This mutation result in gene which is responsible for correcting the defaulted genetic codes. Accumulation of these defects aggravate the genetic damage and cells become cancerous.
Diagnosis of lynch syndrome is dependent on detailed medical history and complete general physical examination of the patient. Family history is the most important aspect in the diagnosis of this condition. Tumor testing is also done through Immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing, Microsatellite instability (MSI) testing. Genetic testing can also be done.
Treatment options include:
- Screening tests for other types of cancer
- Surgery including colectomy, oophorectomy and hysterectomy
- Daily intake of aspirin for prevention of cancer