This is a central nervous system disorder affecting mainly optic nerve (optic neuritis) and spinal cord known as myelitis. This is also known as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder or Devic’s disease. This is an autoimmune condition. This condition is often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS). Exact cause of this condition is not known till now but it occurs usually after infection or can be associated with other autoimmune condition.
Neuromyelitis optica presents as :
- Blindness which can unilateral or bilateral
- Weakness of arm or leg
- Painful spasm
- Loss of sensation
- Uncontrolled hiccuping and vomiting
- Bladder or bowel dysfunction
Diagnosis of this condition depends upon detailed medical history and complete general physical and neurological examination of the patient. Other tests include:
- Imaging tests like CT scan.
- Blood tests
- Spinal tap or lumber puncture
- Stimuli response test
Treatment options include:
- Corticosteroids medications for reversing recent symptoms.
- Plasma exchange
- Lower dose of corticosteroids for preventing future attacks